Unlike a Fugue of Bach's which can only be complete with no more less than it has, as a modulor unit - the Great Fugue could be extrapolated upon endlessly , or stopped abruptly and it would still be a complete piece of music. Self- Similar and not.
Similarly, Frank Lloyd Wright's early Houses In the Prairie Style and The Usonian Houses of his later years are both examples of open systems. if you took 1/1o th of the house it would still be a complete whole, and the house could be increased exponentially in square footage and endless variation and remain intact and perfectly beautiful. If grown along lines of the program of the design.
It took Music literally millions and millions of years to break the boundaries imposed upon it --- similarly, Architecture did not explode the box until Frank Lloyd Wright emerged onto the scene -
These are examples of closed systems - and perhaps their beauty emerges from the fact that they are the most expedient and efficient form possible based upon aeons of Nature's Trial and Error.
-Compared to -
Bach's "Crab Canon" Which could not be possibly anything other than what it is.
The Human body unfolds in growth along the lines of a program, but as far as we know there is no limit to its density --- is becomes ever more complex the deeper one looks at it. And there seems to be no limits to the ability of the brain to fit new material. A human brain , though its outer edges are hard determined, seems capable of infinite growth into an increasingly smaller scale that also leads to proportionately enormous growth.
A Galaxy is defined by an outer edge bordered by Dark Matter, yet is akin to the brain or a body in its flexibility, and so a City - whose boundaries, whether it be a wall, or arbitrary GPS coordinates - has both a hard boundary, but almost always grows along lines of geographic expediency and efficiency (as inculcated by that efficiency rather than planned consciously by human beings)
Are issuances of sap bringing nourishment and endlessly expansive and abundant life to The Banyan Tree --- is a matter of planning, perspective or